The family Conescharellinidae Levinsen is defined and is regarded as comprising seven cheilostome genera (Conescharellina, Bipora, Trochosodon, Flabellopora, Zeuglopora, Crucescharellina and Ptoboroa). The astogeny of colonies, that consists of frontally budded zooids with “reversed” orientation, is briefly described and compared between genera. The morphology of zooids and heterozooids is defined and keys to genera and Australian species are provided. Taxa that were first described from Australia or from reliable subsequent records are redescribed and illustrated where possible. Australian specimens that have been identified as non-Australian species, have generally been found to be distinct and are here redescribed as new species. Some non-Australian records of specimens previously assigned to Australian species have also been re-examined. These are described and sometimes referred to other taxa. Altogether, eight previously described species that have not been found in the present material are discussed and 27 taxa are described from collections, principally from the eastern and southern coasts of Australia and from the Tertiary of Victoria. Eighteen of these are considered to be new species. Where possible, type or at least topotype material of previously described species has been examined. Colonies from the collections of Museum Victoria (NMV) and the Natural History Museum, London (BMNH), have been examined. New species from Australia described here are: Conescharellina cognata, C. ecstasis, C. diffusa, C. obscura, C. stellata, C. plana, C. perculta, C. pustulosa, C. ocellata, C. macgillivrayi, C. humerus; Trochosodon fecundus, T. asymmetricus, T. diommatus, T. aster, T. anomalus, T. praecox and Crucescharellina australis. In addition, the New Zealand bryozoan Trochosodon multiarmatus (Gordon, 1989) (not Bipora multiarmata Maplestone, 1909) is described as Trochosodon gordoni sp. nov.
Keywords: Bryozoa, bryozoans, Cheilostomata, Conescharellinidae, fossil, Recent, Australia, new taxa