Planetarium

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Planetarium

The Melbourne Planetarium is located at Scienceworks, Spotswood. Featuring a 16m domed screen, it uses the latest digital technology to recreate the night sky all around you and can even fly you off the Earth to explore the Universe beyond.

Annular Solar Eclipse

Author
by Tanya
Publish date
8 May 2013
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On the morning of May 10, the Moon will meet up with the Sun in the sky. Many places across Australia will experience a partial solar eclipse - here in Melbourne, 37% of the Sun’s diameter will be blocked by the Moon. It’s not enough for us to notice any visible effects, but if you use the right observing methods (as described below), it’s a neat thing to watch.

However, along a narrow line across the top of Australia, including Tennant Creek (NT), an annular eclipse will occur. What happens here, is that the Moon directly lines up with the Sun, but the Moon is too small to block the Sun completely. Instead, we are left with a ring of sunlight shining out from around the dark Moon.

Annular Solar Eclipse from the Hinode satellite The satellite Hinode, a Japanese mission in partnership with NASA, NAOJ, STFC, ESA and NSC, observed this annular eclipse on 4 January 2011.
Source: Hinode/XRT
 

Skynotes readers will be aware that the Moon’s distance to Earth varies throughout the month. At perigee, when the Moon is closest to Earth, it’s around 360,000 km away. But at apogee, when the Moon is furthest from Earth, its distance increases to about 400,000 km. Well this month, apogee occurs on May 13, a few days after the eclipse. Being further away, the Moon appears smaller and no longer matches the size of the Sun.

It’s such a great coincidence that we have solar eclipses at all. Who ever thinks much about the Sun and Moon appearing the same size, even though they are at such different distances from Earth? Having seen my first total solar eclipse last November, I’m really glad this coincidence occurs, as it was an amazing sight.

Timings of the partial eclipse from Melbourne on Friday 10th are:

Eclipse begins: 7:50am
Mid-eclipse: 8:52am
Eclipse ends: 10:02am

Remember, it is not safe to look directly at the Sun. There are safe ways to look at the eclipse – at the Scienceworks shop you can purchase special eclipse glasses that will allow you to watch the event, while protecting your eyesight.

You can also create a simple "pinhole" projection. It's as easy as making a small pinhole in a piece of paper or cardboard. Do not look through the hole, but allow the Sun to shine through and project an image onto a second piece of cardboard. Even a blank wall or clear patch of ground can make good surfaces for projection.

Sometimes nature helps out too. If you can see sunlight travelling through the leaves of a tree, you’ve got yourself some ready made pinhole projections. Check the ground and it might be covered with little eclipse images. Take a look at this great example on the Astronomy magazine website.

Links:

Australian Astronomy Factsheet : for eclipse timings from other Australian cities.

Tale of two comets

Author
by Tanya
Publish date
28 February 2013
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It’s quite rare for two comets to be found in the same patch of sky, but right now Comets Lemmon and PANSTARRS are both in the south. Unfortunately they are very faint, and even from a lovely dark sky, they are only just barely visible. But they are putting on a show for those with binoculars or a small telescope.

During February, astro-photographer, Alex Cherney captured the two comets from the Mornington Penisula. He has also produced a wonderful time-lapse video of the comets together in the sky. You can check it out on the Terrastro blog.

Comets Lemmon and PANSTARRS During February Comets Lemmon and PANSTARRS have travelled across the southern sky.
Image: Alex Cherney
Source: http://www.terrastro.com/
 

There’s a chance that the comets may brighten a little as they continue to head towards the Sun, but you never can tell with comets. After all, comets are called ‘dirty snowballs’ and how brilliantly (or disappointingly!) they will melt is hard to predict.

Comet PANSTARRS is currently the brighter of the two and it reaches perihelion (closest to the Sun) on the 10th March. The problem for us, is that we can only see the comet in the twilight sky and after perihelion it will move too far north for us to see it at all. However, northern hemisphere observers are hopeful that the comet might be fairly easy to see once it travels north.

Comet Lemmon can be found low in the south-west at sunset or low in the south-east before sunrise. It will reach perihelion on the 24th March, and photographs of the comet have shown it to have an eerie greenish glow. The comet contains carbon (or C2 gas) and the Sun is making the gas fluoresce and turning it green.

9pm, 28 February For the next couple of days, Comets Lemmon and PANSTARRS can be found in the south. This chart is for Melbourne at 9pm, 28 February.
Source: Museum Victoria
 

The problem with Pluto

Author
by Tanya
Publish date
18 February 2013
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On 18 February 1930, Clyde Tombaugh achieved an amazing feat - he discovered Pluto. It’s said that he was a meticulous astronomer and I’m sure he must have needed all that mettle to have stumbled upon the tiny speck that was Pluto.

Over six years ago, Pluto grabbed headlines when astronomers famously ‘demoted’ the planet and designated it as the first of the dwarf planets. Some were disappointed by this – but I have to say that Pluto has always been a bit of an odd-ball. It was something we had explored a year earlier with the release of our planetarium show, The Problem with Pluto, in 2005.

The Problem With Pluto In this planetarium show, Lucy is on a research craft with her mother Lillian, a scientist, and together they are gathering data to discover just what Pluto’s status should be.
Image: Melbourne Planetarium
Source: Museum Victoria
 

A fellow astronomer shared with me his interesting way to explain it. Imagine, as a child, having a case full of pencils. The pencils came in all different colours but at their heart they were the same; except for one. It was a bit odd, still good for colouring-in just like a pencil, but there was something different about it. Nonetheless, it was the only one you’d even seen and it had always been in the pencil case, so you called it a pencil along with all the others. Then, one day at a friend’s house, you opened their pencil case and it was filled with something called crayons. Your eyes lit up with recognition. That odd-ball pencil you’d been worried about wasn’t odd after all, it was in fact a crayon.

When Pluto was discovered, it was one of a kind at the edge of the Solar System. It wasn’t a terrestrial planet, it wasn’t a gas giant, but it did orbit the Sun. Seventy years on, we now know of thousands of objects orbiting alongside Pluto. They are the icy worlds that make up the Kuiper Belt. Pluto, because it is big enough to be round, is still a bit special and so it now goes by the new label of dwarf planet.

On Pluto Day, I’ll be celebrating that Pluto has now found its rightful place in the Solar System.

New Horizons spacecraft Right now, a real research craft is on its way to Pluto. Called New Horizons it will fly by Pluto in July 2015 and journey on to discover more about the Kuiper Belt.
Source: NASA
                       

Links

The Problem with Pluto will be showing at the Melbourne Planetarium at 2pm, 18 February to 4 March.

Asteroid zooms by Earth

Author
by Tanya
Publish date
11 February 2013
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Most of the time we rush through space without giving it a second thought. But every now and again the Universe reminds us that we are not alone.

On Saturday morning, 16 February, Earth will be buzzed by asteroid ‘2012 DA14’. Its closest approach at 6:25am, will bring it 34,000km from Earth. That’s just a little closer than the geosynchronous satellites – a ring of communication and weather satellites that orbit the Earth at 36,000km. Earlier predictions had the asteroid coming even closer, but Earth’s gravity keeps tugging on the asteroid and changing its predicted path, ever so slightly.

Flight path of asteroid 2012 DA14 The path of asteroid 2012 DA14, which approaches Earth from "below" and passes through the ring of geosychronous satellites. The times given are AEDT.
Source: NASA/JPL-Caltech
 

One thing is quite clear – there is no chance the asteroid will collide with Earth and that’s a good thing. At 45 metres across, it’s not particularly small and probably of similar size to the asteroid that exploded over Siberia in 1908. Known as the Tunguska event, it flattened 80 million trees across an area the size of Port Phillip Bay.

Path of asteroid 2012 DA14 from Melbourne The path of asteroid 2012 DA14 across the south-west sky as seen from Melbourne on the morning of Saturday 16 February 2013. The times indicated are in AEDT while the positions with relation to the horizon are calculated for 5:25am.
Source: Melbourne Planetarium
 

Asteroid 2012 DA14 won’t be bright enough for us to see, but experienced observers could catch a glimpse with a small telescope. It will appear in the south-west, just below the Southern Cross – the hard thing will be pin-pointing it while it’s zipping along at 28,000 km/hour.

The rock was discovered almost a year ago by the La Sagra Observatory in southern Spain. It’s one of a handful of observatories that hunt and monitor Near Earth Objects. Each day, about a hundred tons of interplanetary material falls onto Earth – mostly dust from comets or small fragments from asteroid collisions. But once every 100 years, we expect something larger, like 2012 DA14, to appear. It’s nice to know there are people out there looking and making sure our path is clear.

Trees felled by the Tunguska explosion. The Tunguska event was caused by a similar sized asteroid exploding over Siberia in 1908.
Source: the Leonid Kulik Expedition
 

Links:

A Ustream feed of the flyby from a telescope at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, will be broadcast from 1pm to 4pm, 16 February (AEDT).

Animations and interviews by NASA scientists

Accounts of the Tunguska event from Science at NASA

Space Shuttle Columbia

Author
by Tanya
Publish date
1 February 2013
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It was 10 years ago today, 1 February 2003, that the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart on its way back to Earth. The STS-107 crew had spent 16 days in orbit and were just 16 minutes from landing when the accident tragically occurred.

Crew of STS-107 This photograph survived on a roll of unprocessed film recovered from the accident. Bottom row (L to R): Kalpana Chawla, mission specialist; Rick D. Husband, mission commander; Laurel B. Clark, mission specialist, and Ilan Ramon, payload specialist. Top row (L to R): David M. Brown, mission specialist; William C. McCool, pilot, and Michael P. Anderson, payload commander.
Source: NASA
 

On a trip to the USA in 2002, I attended a talk by astronaut and astronomer, John Grunsfeld. He was asked “why fly into space when the risks are so high?” and his reply has always stuck with me. It was pretty much “because it’s the most amazing thing to do.

He went on to explain that while astronauts are fully aware of the risks involved – and they don't take them lightly – they are also certain that the benefits of what they are doing will lead to greater things for our future.

Today we remember the amazing men and women who have believed in the spirit of space exploration. I hope there will always be pioneers just like them, who are willing to push the limits of what’s possible and dream big for all of us.

Links:

Powerhouse Museum: "Sometimes, when we reach for the stars, we fall short..."

Siding Spring Observatory

Author
by Tanya
Publish date
14 January 2013
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Like other Australian astronomers last night, I was glued to the computer watching as a fire raged across the Warrumbungle National Park in NSW, home to Australia's world-class optical and infrared telescopes at Sliding Spring Observatory. I think the hardest thing was knowing that it's almost 10 years ago to the day, that fires destroyed the Mt Stromlo Observatory in Canberra. Could this really be happening again?

Fire around telescope A truly frightening image, as Australia's largest optical telescope, the Australian Astronomical Telescope (AAT), is engulfed in smoke.
Source: Rural Fire Services
 

Fires around telescope Fires blaze around cottages in front of the AAT. To the top right of the image are the flames that engulfed the lodge.
Source: FTS webcam
 

Fire at astronomer's lodge The glow as the astronomer's lodge is destroyed. Temperatures at the AAT were measured to be over 100 degrees.
Source: FTS webcam
 

Thankfully, lessons were learnt from that event and there is much hope that measures put into place may have saved the dozen or so telescopes on the mountain. We'll have to wait and see as the damage is assessed over the next few days.

The good news is that all 18 staff were evacuated safely. Many telescope domes are still standing, as new images come through this morning. The building which has been destroyed was the lodge which provided accommodation for astronomers during their observing runs. 

Fire around telescope Electronics were not meant to survive such temperatures.
Source: HATSouth webcam
 

Telescope dome after fire The picture I wanted to see today. The AAT dome still stands, but there will be a wait to access how the telescope fared inside.
Source: LCOGT webcam
 

Our thoughts are with the community of Coonabarabran and those who have been affected by the fires, and our thanks go out to fire services for their great efforts. 

If the telescopes had been destroyed it would have been devastating for Australian astronomical research, all but ending our ability to do continue doing optical astronomy here. Hundreds of researchers and students rely on those telescopes. And it would also have affected the Coonabarabran community, many of whom rely on the telescopes for their livelihoods too.

Images of the event, many taken from the webcams that are normally used by astronomers to check sky conditions during their nightly observations, tell the story.

burnt astronomer's lodge building The burnt out remains of the astronomers lodge. I have fond memories of Margaret's delicious chocolate pudding, which I would devour there, before heading up to the telescope for the night's observing run!
Source: Rural Fire Services

Telescope dome after fire The square "dome" on the left houses the ANU's 2.3 metre telescope which stayed a comfortable 20 degrees throughout the fire. The dome to the top right is the new SkyMapper telescope, led by Nobel Laureate Brian Schmidt and built to continue the work of the Great Melbourne Telescope after it was destroyed in the Mt Stromlo fires. Temperatures there peaked at 65 °C.
Source: Rural Fire Services
 

UPDATE: 

The Warrumbungle Shire Council has set up a Warrumbungle Shire Mayor’s Bushfire Appeal with donations being used solely to assist residents affected by the fire. The NSW Rural Fire Service are reporting that some 40 properties and over 110 out-buildings have been confirmed lost as well as a large number of livestock and farm machinery.

 

Links:

Siding Spring after the fires of January 2013 via Observations Blog, Sydney Observatory

Report from The Australian

Astropixie liveblogging the fire: Sunday night and Monday morning

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Updates on what's happening at Melbourne Museum, the Immigration Museum, Scienceworks, the Royal Exhibition Building, and beyond.

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