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Token - 1 Penny, Robison Bros.& Co, Victoria Copper Works, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 1862 Numismatics Reg. No: NU 4274

Summary:
Copper One Penny Token, minted by Thomas Stokes, Melbourne. Issued by Robison Bros.& Co, Victoria Copper Works, Melbourne, 1862. William and George Robison founded this company in 1854 and were joined by their brothers over the next nine years. In 1858 William Robison, one of the founders of the company, left to begin his own, competing business. By 1862 the main family firm was listed in Flinders Street, they later moved to South Melbourne. Once established in South Melbourne the business expanded, and in addition to their metal working business, Robison Bros. developed a substantial ships chandler's business. They remained at their South Melbourne site until 1971.
Description:
A round copper token (34 mm diameter) featuring the name, company name and address of the issues: Robison Brothers, Victoria Copper Works, 31 Flinders Street West, Melbourne The reverse features a coat of arms consisting of a central shield set on grass covered ground and below Rising Sun. On left a kangaroo seated facing out but head back towards sun (sejant sinister reguardant) and on right emu with similar stance (passant dexter reguardant). Below ground line and set on bouquet of rose, thistles and shamrock, a ribbon with the motto ADVANCE AUSTRALIA. The shield is quartered by a cross with a star at the centre and at the end of each arm. The cross is shaded vertical and horitontal but there is no hatching around the stars. The quarters contain: top left, a three-masted sailing ship; top right, a golden fleece; bottom left, an anchor; and bottom right, a wheat sheaf. Around above, VICTORIA . 1862 around below in two lines, T. STOKES MAKER / 100 COLLINS ST. EAST MELBOURNE. The T of T. STOKES above the first L of COLLINS and the T EAST is below the first stroke of the A of MAKER. The standard references for this die are Andrews 12 = Heyde Arms 4 = Sharples Arms 1.
Acquisition Information:
Transfer from National Gallery of Victoria (NGV), 1976
Discipline: Numismatics
Dimensions: 34 mm (Diameter)
Weight: 13.978 g (Weight)

More information

Tagged with: copper works, heavy industries
Themes this item is part of: Robison Bros. & Co., Victoria Copper Works, Melbourne, Victoria, Numismatics & Philately Collection, Working Life & Trades Collection, Stokes & Son, Medal Makers, Melbourne, Victoria & Sydney, New South Wales, Alfred Chitty Collection
Primary Classification: TRADE TOKENS
Secondary Classification: Australia - Victoria
Tertiary Classification: working strikes
Series: Trade Tokens
DateEra: 1862 AD
Denomination: 1 Penny
Obverse Description: At centre within line circle, ROBISON BROS. / & CO. / 31 / FLINDERS ST. / WEST; around, VICTORIA COPPER WORKS : MELBOURNE : (Sharples' obverse A)
Reverse Description: Coat of arms consisting of a central shield set on grass covered ground and below Rising Sun. On left a kangaroo seated facing out but head back towards sun (sejant sinister reguardant) and on right emu with similar stance (passant dexter reguardant). Below ground line and set on bouquet of rose, thistles and shamrock, a ribbon with the motto ADVANCE AUSTRALIA. The shield is quartered by a cross with a star at the centre and at the end of each arm. The cross is shaded vertical and horitontal but there is no hatching around the stars. The quarters contain: top left, a three-masted sailing ship; top right, a golden fleece; bottom left, an anchor; and bottom right, a wheat sheaf. Around above, VICTORIA . 1862 around below in two lines, T. STOKES MAKER / 100 COLLINS ST. EAST MELBOURNE. The T of T. STOKES above the first L of COLLINS and the T EAST is below the first stroke of the A of MAKER. The standard references for this die are Andrews 12 = Heyde Arms 4 = Sharples Arms 1.
Edge Description: Plain
Inscriptions: Obverse: ROBISON BROS. & CO. 31 FLINDERS ST. WEST VICTORIA COPPER WORKS MELBOURNE
Reverse: VICTORIA . 1862 ADVANCE AUSTRALIA T. STOKES, MAKER. 100 COLLINS ST. EAST. MELBOURNE
Shape: round
Material: Copper
Issued By: Robison Bros.& Co Victoria Copper Works, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 1862
Mint: Stokes (Mint), Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 1862
Previous Collection: Mr Alfred Chitty
References: The issue of tokens for Robison Brother & Co. Victoria Copper Works required three different obverse dies. These can be quickly identified by the following steps:
1. If there is a dot under the letter T of ST (of FLINDERS ST) it is from obverse A.
2. If there is no dot under the letter T of ST and the letter S of BROS is below the letters RK of WORKS it is obverse B
3. If there is no dot under the letter T of ST and the letter S of BROS is below the letters K of WORKS it is obverse C.

The reverse were Stokes stock dies with the following combinations observed:
Obverse A combined with Arms 1 (this token) and Emu 4
Obverse B combined with Emu 1
Obverse C combined with Emu 1, Emu 2 and Vine 1

During this work Stokes acquired their own copper rolling mill permitting them to manufacture their own blanks. It is thought that the commercially available copper sheets were too thin and caused the dies to break. When they were able to prepare thicker blanks this was overcome. The weights of the tokens reflect the thickness of the blanks they were struck on. See Sharples JNAA.7 p55 - 56. Possible linkages between Stokes and the Victoria Copper Works in respect of blank production might prove useful.
Bibliography:
  1. [Book], Dr Arthur Andrews, Australasian Tokens and Coins, Trustees of the Mitchell Library, Sydney, Sydney, 1921, No. 459
  2. [Book], Dion Skinner - Renniks & Co Pty Ltd, Gilbert Heyde, Unofficial Coins of Colonial Australia and New Zealand, 1967, No. 220
  3. [Article] Sharples, John P. 1993. A Catalogue of the Trade Tokens of Victoria 1848 to 1862. Journal of the Numismatic Association of Australia. vol.7: p.1-77., V. 125

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