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Token - 1 Penny, Robison Bros.& Co, Victoria Copper Works, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 1862 Numismatics Reg. No: NU 4282

Summary:
Copper One Penny Token, minted by Thomas Stokes, Melbourne. Issued by Robison Bros.& Co, Victoria Copper Works, Melbourne, 1862. William and George Robison founded this company in 1854 and were joined by their brothers over the next nine years. In 1858 William Robison, one of the founders of the company, left to begin his own, competing business. By 1862 the main family firm was listed in Flinders Street, they later moved to South Melbourne. Once established in South Melbourne the business expanded, and in addition to their metal working business, Robison Bros. developed a substantial ships chandler's business. They remained at their South Melbourne site until 1971.

Previous Collections: George McArthur
Description:
A round copper token (34 mm diameter) featuring the name, company name and address of the issues: Robison Brothers, Victoria Copper Works, 31 Flinders Street West, Melbourne The reverse features within a line circle a piece of grape vine with eleven large leaves and two bunches of grapes, below, breaking the line circle the manufacturers name T. STOKES MAKER. 100 COLLINS ST. EAST MELBOURNE around above, VICTORIA 1862. Border of 120 beads. This is a Stokes stock reverse, used for many trade token issuers. It is numbered in the standard catalogues as: Sharples Vine 2 = Heyde Vine 2 = Andrews 8. This is the only stock vine die not to have the Latin motto IN VINO VERITAS. This token seems to have been marked by a circular cutter after striking, there are impressed arcs opposite each other on the obverse and the reverse.
Acquisition Information:
Transfer from National Gallery of Victoria (NGV), 1976
Discipline: Numismatics
Dimensions: 34 mm (Diameter)
Weight: 16.106 g (Weight)

More information

Tagged with: copper works, heavy industries
Themes this item is part of: Robison Bros. & Co., Victoria Copper Works, Melbourne, Victoria, George McArthur, Collector & Baker (1842-1903), Numismatics & Philately Collection, Working Life & Trades Collection, Stokes & Son, Medal Makers, Melbourne, Victoria & Sydney, New South Wales, McArthur Bequest
Primary Classification: TRADE TOKENS
Secondary Classification: Australia - Victoria
Tertiary Classification: working strikes
Series: Trade Tokens
DateEra: 1862 AD
Denomination: 1 Penny
Obverse Description: At centre within line circle, ROBISON BROS. / & CO. / 31 / FLINDERS ST / WEST; around, VICTORIA COPPER WORKS : MELBOURNE : (Sharples' obverse C).
Reverse Description: At centre within a line circle a piece of grape vine with eleven large leaves and two bunches of grapes, below, breaking the line circle the manufacturers name T. STOKES MAKER. 100 COLLINS ST. EAST MELBOURNE around above, VICTORIA 1862. Border of 120 beads. This is a Stokes stock reverse, used for many trade token issuers. It is numbered in the standard catalogues as: Sharples Vine 2 = Heyde Vine 2 = Andrews 1. This is the only stock vine die to not have the Latin motto IN VINO VERITAS.
Inscriptions: Obverse: ROBISON BROS. & CO. 31 FLINDERS ST WEST VICTORIA COPPER WORKS MELBOURNE
Reverse: VICTORIA . 1862 T. STOKES MAKER. 100 COLLINS ST EAST MELBOURNE
Shape: round
Material: Copper
Issued By: Robison Bros.& Co Victoria Copper Works, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 1862
Mint: Stokes (Mint), Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 1862
Previous Collection: George McArthur
References: The issue of tokens for Robison Brother & Co. Victoria Copper Works required three different obverse dies. These can be quickly identified by the following steps:
1. If there is a dot under the letter T of ST (of FLINDERS ST) it is from obverse A.
2. If there is no dot under the letter T of ST and the letter S of BROS is below the letters RK of WORKS it is obverse B
3. If there is no dot under the letter T of ST and the letter S of BROS is below the letters K of WORKS it is obverse C.

The reverse were Stokes stock dies with the following combinations observed:
Obverse A combined with Arms 1 and Emu 4
Obverse B combined with Emu 1
Obverse C combined with Emu 1, Emu 2 and Vine 1 (this token)

During this work Stokes acquired their own copper rolling mill permitting them to manufacture their own blanks. It is thought that the commercially available copper sheets were too thin and caused the dies to break. When they were able to prepare thicker blanks this was overcome. The weights of the tokens reflect the thickness of the blanks they were struck on. See Sharples JNAA.7 p55 - 56. Possible linkages between Stokes and the Victoria Copper Works in respect of blank production might prove useful.
Bibliography:
  1. [Thesis] Lugton, Mary E. 1989. George McArthur of Maldon: his Life and his Book Collection.
  2. [Catalogue] Morrison, Ian. 2003. The Baker of Maldon.
  3. [Book], Dr Arthur Andrews, Australasian Tokens and Coins, Trustees of the Mitchell Library, Sydney, Sydney, 1921, No. 463
  4. [Book], Dion Skinner - Renniks & Co Pty Ltd, Gilbert Heyde, Unofficial Coins of Colonial Australia and New Zealand, 1967, No. 219
  5. [Article] Sharples, John P. 1993. A Catalogue of the Trade Tokens of Victoria 1848 to 1862. Journal of the Numismatic Association of Australia. vol.7: p.1-77., V. 130

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