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Coin - Penny, Aethelred II, England, 997 - 1003 Numismatics Reg. No: NU 75

Summary:
Silver coin, Denomination: Penny
Gothabyrig Mint
Aethelred II (978-1016); Kings of All England
Moneyer: Wulfmaer; Type: Long Cross (997-1003)

Purchased from Spink & Sons, London, 1932 as "15957 Aethelred II, Ythancester penny RRR EF". The attribution of coins of this King to Ythancaster seems to have been rejected since 1932.

Aethelred II ascended the throne after the murder of his half-brother, Edward the Martyr, by Aethelred's retainers when the king had come to visit him on the evening of 18 March 978. His reign saw increasing raids from Denmark both in number and strength, culminating in the Danish conquest of England under Cnut.

During the reign Aethelred a variety of different reverse designs were produced. These were part of a deliberate policy to raise revenue by periodic demonetization of the old designs. When new coins were struck the king would take a share of the silver used and the Exchequer would charge the mints for the new dies. In addition, the removal of old coins would help keep the coins in circulation at correct weight.

Aethelred died in London on 23 April 1016 and was succeeded by his son Eadmund.

Aethelred became known to history as the Unready. Unready is a mistranslation of the Old English - Æþelræd Unræd which translates to 'noble counsel no counsel'. His name meant 'noble counsel' and the epitaph suggested he received poor advice. However, the later victory of Cnut marking a successful Danish conquest of England has meant Aethelred the Unready has been adopted.
Acquisition Information:
Transfer from National Gallery of Victoria (NGV), 1976
Discipline: Numismatics
Dimensions: 20 mm (Diameter)
Weight: 1.333 g (Weight)

More information

Themes this item is part of: Numismatics & Philately Collection
Primary Classification: COINS
Secondary Classification: Great Britain - England
Tertiary Classification: working strikes
Series: Anglo Saxon
DateEra: 997-1003 AD
Denomination: 1 Penny
Obverse Description: A bust of the King wearing armour facing left, the base of the bust reaches the edge of the coin, around, + AEDELRED REX ANG
Reverse Description: A long cross voided; around, + VVL FMAER MO G EODA (Wulfmaer moneyer Giotha).
Edge Description: Plain
Shape: round
Material: Silver
Issued By: King Aethelred II - Kingdom of Northumbria, England, Great Britain
Mint: Gothabyrig (Mint)
Bibliography:
  1. [Book], J. North, English Hammered Coinage, Spink & Son Ltd., London, 1963, p.111, no.774 Pages
  2. [Book], Philip Skingley - Spink & Sons Ltd., Coins of England and the United Kingdom, Spink & Son Ltd., London, 2007, p.128, no.1151 Pages

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