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Token - 1 Penny, Whitty & Brown Mint, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, circa 1860 Numismatics Reg. No: NU 4549

Summary:
Australia New South Wales Sydney
Whitty & Brown Token Penny c.1860 (AD)
Mint: Whitty and Brown
Previous Collections: National Gallery of Victoria
Standard References: Andrews 635 = Heyde 4/1
Description:
A round copper token (34 mm diameter). The token does not include the name the issuer and manufacturer: Whitty & Brown, Sydney, but the shared reverse die and characteristic poor workmanship make it clear that this company was responsible. It features the denomination and the motto Advance Australia on the obverse and a representation of an emu on left facing right and a kangaroo on right facing left standing on a grassy plain. The kangaroo seems set too close to the centre of the token for balance. The die work is of poor quality and the token weakly struck.
Acquisition Information:
Transfer from National Gallery of Victoria (NGV), 1976
Discipline: Numismatics
Dimensions: 33 mm (Diameter)
Weight: 14.710 g (Weight)

More information

Tagged with: australian native animals, emus, kangaroos
Themes this item is part of: Whitty & Brown Mint, Medal Makers, Sydney, New South Wales, Numismatics & Philately Collection, Working Life & Trades Collection
Primary Classification: TRADE TOKENS
Secondary Classification: Australia - New South Wales
Tertiary Classification: working strikes
Series: Trade Tokens
DateEra: circa 1860 AD
Denomination: 1 Penny
Obverse Description: At centre within line circle, ONE / PENNY; around, ADVANCE AUSTRALIA +++
Reverse Description: An emu on left facing right and a kangaroo on right facing left standing on a grassy plain. The paw of the kangaroo is 0.6 mm from the emu.
Edge Description: Plain
Inscriptions: Obverse: ONE PENNY ADVANCE AUSTRALIA
Shape: Round
Material: Copper
Issued By: Whitty & Brown (Mint), Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Mint: Whitty & Brown (Mint), Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 1850-1868
Previous Collection: National Gallery of Victoria (NGV) Numismatics Collection, pre 1976
References: Andrews 635 = Heyde 4/1

The museum storage system is based on the die combination not on the movement of the dies during production. This series of tokens is believed to have been struck employing a drop hammer. This has resulted in most examples exhibiting double striking. On some occasions the token or die moved to such an extent between strikes as the die bounced that some early collectors described different types - particularly refering to the number of beads in the upper and lower bars of the obverse. Andrews, p.101, correctly pointed out that a tiny flaw from the C of ADVANCE to the inner circle, is found on all tokens. He correctly argues "This would indicate that the variations are due to the mode of manufacture entirely." This was followed by Heyde p.26 and in the museum storage.

Four reverse dies were employed with the "One Penny" obverse - two depicting Justice:
Reverse 1: the re-engraved form of Justice with a square sleeve on her right arm and the fruit pouring from the inverted cornucopiae flowing along the ground to the left and right of the figure. The folds falling from Justice's right shoulder end well above the horizon line.

Reverse 2: a new Justice with clearer defined head and blindfold with the fruit pouring only on the right side of the figure. There seems to be no definition of a ground line on this die. It broke in numerous places during the striking of this issue and does not occur with any other obverse. The folds falling from Justice's right shoulder end below the horizon line.

and two depicting an emu and Kangaroo facing each other:
Reverse 3: The emu and kangaroo close together, 0.6 mm from the kangaroo paw to the emu neck
Reverse 4: The emu and kangaroo distant, 2.0 mm from the kangaroo paw to the emu neck
Bibliography:
  1. [Book], Dr Arthur Andrews, Australasian Tokens and Coins, Trustees of the Mitchell Library, Sydney, Sydney, 1921
  2. [Book], Dion Skinner - Renniks & Co Pty Ltd, Gilbert Heyde, Unofficial Coins of Colonial Australia and New Zealand, 1967

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