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Surcharged Token - 1 Penny, Professor Holloway's, Pills & Ointment, London, Fax Leather Cutter, Australia, circa 1858 Numismatics Reg. No: NU 18841

Summary:
Copper One Penny Token minted by J. Moore of Birmingham. Issued to promote Professor Holloway's pills and ointments in 1858, it has been surcharged FAX / LEATHER / CUTTER.

Holloway tokens are presumed to have been circulated worldwide throughout retailers of Holloway products. Holloway's tokens were produced in large numbers and have proven the most common token finds on Melbourne archaeological sites.

Previous Collections: National Gallery of Victoria
Description:
A round copper striking of a Professor Holloway token (34 mm diameter). The token features a profile head of Professor Holloway and a rendition of the classical goddess Hygeia (the ancient Greek goddess of health) seated looking at snake drinking from a cup she holds in her left hand, the snake is curled around a burning altar, an orb rests on altar on her right side. The legend promotes Holloway's pills and ointments and gives the date 1858. This token has been surcharged in three lines FAX / LEATHER / CUTTER
Acquisition Information:
Transfer from National Gallery of Victoria (NGV), 1976
Discipline: Numismatics
Dimensions: 34 mm (Diameter)
Weight: 16.92 g (Weight)

More information

Tagged with: healthcare medicine, leather industry, leatherworking, surcharged tokens
Themes this item is part of: Medicine in Society Collection, Numismatics & Philately Collection, Working Life & Trades Collection, Joseph Moore, Medal Designer (1817-?)
Primary Classification: TRADE TOKENS
Secondary Classification: Australia - Victoria
Tertiary Classification: surcharged strikes
Series: Trade Tokens
DateEra: circa 1858 AD
Denomination: 1 Penny
Obverse Description: Head of Professor Holloway facing left with J. MOORE (the maker's name) incuse on neck truncation; around, PROFESSOR HOLLOWAY; below, LONDON, surcharged in three lines FAX / LEATHER / CUTTER
Reverse Description: Hygeia (the ancient Greek goddess of health) seated looking at snake drinking from a cup she holds in her left hand, the snake is curled around a burning altar, an orb rests on altar on her right side, around; HOLLOWAY'S PILLS AND OINTMENTS, in exergue, 1858. The maker's initials, J.M. incuse on the right of the exergue line.
Edge Description: Plain
Inscriptions: Obverse: PROFESSOR HOLLOWAY LONDON J. MOORE surcharged in three lines FAX / LEATHER / CUTTER
Reverse: HOLLOWAY'S PILLS AND OINTMENTS 1858
Shape: round
Material: Copper
Issued By: Professor Holloway, London, England, Great Britain, 1858
Mint: J. Moore (Mint), Birmingham, England, Great Britain, 1858
Surcharged By: Fax, Leather Cutter, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, circa 1858
Place & Date Used: South Australia, Australia, circa 1858-1890s
Previous Collection: National Gallery of Victoria (NGV) Numismatics Collection, pre 1976
References: Holloway's tokens were struck in such large numbers that the minting technique of hubbing was clearly employed. In this a master tool, having the full appearance of the final token for the obverse and reverse is manufactured in steel. This is then used to prepare working dies. This technique makes the identification of individual dies from variations in rim bead counts or alignment of lettering impossible. Researchers have noted minor variations in the lowest relief areas of the tokens that may be the result of variations of quality of the die production off the hub (Heyde p. 49) or minor tooling.
Bibliography:
  1. [Book], Dr Arthur Andrews, Australasian Tokens and Coins, Trustees of the Mitchell Library, Sydney, Sydney, 1921, No.1087
  2. [Book], Dion Skinner - Renniks & Co Pty Ltd, Gilbert Heyde, Unofficial Coins of Colonial Australia and New Zealand, 1967

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