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Surcharged Token - 1 Penny, R. Parker, Ironmonger, Geelong, Victoria, circa 1857, R.K., Australia Reg. No: NU 18775
- Copper one Penny Token minted by Heaton & Sons of Birmingham, circa 1857. Issued by R. Parker an Ironmonger from Geelong, Victoria. It is surcharged R.K.
Richard Parker arrived in Victoria in 1839 and established a general store in Elizabeth Street with a Mr Boadle, the partnership dissolved when Boadle left Melbourne. Parker then moved Collins Street and continued his business until selling out to Germain Nicholson in 1844, when he moved to Geelong and established an ironmongery store. Parker was very successful, and opened stores in Clunes, Back Creek (Talbot), Firey Creek and Ararat. Parker issued at least ten varieties of tokens, all with the same inscription and figure on the faces, but with slight variations. When the tokens arrived, they were emptied out in a huge pile in the window, and as small change was scare, people flocked to the shop to exchange their silver for the more convenient copper.
Previous Collections: National Gallery of Victoria
- A copper token (34 mm diameter) featuring the name, address and business of the issuer: R. Parker, Moorabool St. Geelong, Ironmonger and on the reverse, a female figure representing Justice standing facing left. She wears a blindfold and extends a balanced set of scales with her right hand. With her left she holds an inverted cornucopia from which fruits flow onto the ground. She wears an ancient-style of flowing dress bound at the waist, her left arm is draped to near the elbow while drapery falls from her extended arm to below the horizon line behind; around above, AUSTRALIA. A three-masted sailing ship on horizon at left of token. This token has been surcharged R.K.
- Acquisition Information:
- Transfer from National Gallery of Victoria (NGV), 1976
|Dimensions:||34 mm (Diameter)|
|Weight:||14.80 g (Weight)|
|Tagged with:||ironmongers, law justice, surcharged tokens|
|Themes this item is part of:||Heaton & Sons Mint, Birmingham, England, Numismatics & Philately Collection, Working Life & Trades Collection|
|Primary Classification:||TRADE TOKENS|
|Secondary Classification:||Australia - Victoria|
|Tertiary Classification:||surcharged strikes|
|DateEra:||circa 1857 AD|
|Obverse Description:||Legend in four lines: MOORABOOL STREET / R:PARKER / IRONMONGER. / GEELONG|
|Reverse Description:||Female figure representing Justice standing facing left. She wears a blindfold and extends a balanced set of scales with her right hand. With her left she holds an inverted cornucopia from which fruits flow onto the ground . She wears an ancient-style of flowing dress bound at the waist, her left arm is draped to near the elbow while drapery falls from her extended arm to below the horizon line behind; around above, AUSTRALIA. A three-masted sailing ship on horizon at left of token. Surcharged R.K.|
|Inscriptions:||Obverse: MOORABOOL STREET R. PARKER IRONMONGER GEELONG
Reverse: AUSTRALIA surcharged R.K.
|Issued By:||R Parker, Geelong, Victoria, Australia, 1850-1862|
|Mint:||Heaton & Sons (Mint), Birmingham, England, Great Britain, 1850-1862|
|Previous Collection:||National Gallery of Victoria (NGV) Numismatics Collection, pre 1976|
Gardner, F., 'Trade tokens and the firms who issued them', The Australian Storekeepers and Traders Journal, 31 October 1912, pp. 12 - 13
Sharples, J., "Catalogue of Victorian Trade Tokens' in Journal of the Numismatic Association of Australia, Vol. 7, December 1993, pp.24 - 26
Parker employed Heaton & Sons, Birmingham to strike his extensive token issues. At least nine obverse and five reverse dies were needed to complete the orders over three separate issues. The dies were well made and almost identical so that their products are somewhat difficult to differentiate. The first step is to establish the issue to which a token belonged.
1. Measure the diameter of the token
If it is 35 mm it is from issue 1 (there will be a : after the R of R: PARKER and the die axis will be 06)
If it is 34 mm and the die axis is 06 it is from issue 2 (there will be a : after the R)
If it is 34 mm and the die axis is 12 it is from issue 3 (there will be a . after the R)
Issue 1, required four obverse (A,. B, C and D) and one reverse (1) dies.
Obverse A distance from the M to the R: is 0.5 mm the I of IRON if extended would pass through G. Border of 126 beads.
Obverse B M to R is 1.0 mm and the I would pass through the G. Border of 131 beads.
Obverse C M to R is 0.5 mm and the I would pass to the left of the G. Border of 128 beads.