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Token - 1 Penny, Whitty & Brown Mint, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, circa 1860 Numismatics Reg. No: NU 4534

Summary:
Australia New South Wales Sydney
Whitty & Brown Token Penny c.1860 (AD)
Mint: Whitty and Brown
Previous Collections: George McArthur
Standard References: Andrews 630 = Heyde 202/3
Description:
A round copper token (34 mm diameter). The token does not include the name the issuer and manufacturer: Whitty & Brown, Sydney, but the shared reverse die and characteristic poor workmanship make it clear that this company was responsible. It features a ram facing left and a representation of Justice standing blindfolded holding scales and an inverted cornucopiae spilling fruit on the ground. A sailing ship is on the horizon. The die work is of poor quality and the token weakly struck it has been cleaned and varnished.

This token was struck during the third stage of the obverse and second stage of the reverse dies. The stages of deterioration of the obverse die are recognised by the development of projections from the base of the ground into the exergue area, on this token there is two large projections, one from from the right side the second from the centre. The edge of the die was just beginning to break, at the N of PLENTY. Stage 1 of the reverse is easiest to recognise by the fold of cloth which curves over the right shoulder and arm of Justice, on Stage 2 it is reformed as a sleeve squared off half way down the arm.
Acquisition Information:
Transfer from National Gallery of Victoria (NGV), 1976
Discipline: Numismatics
Dimensions: 34 mm (Diameter)
Weight: 14.407 g (Weight)

More information

Tagged with: art, farm animals, sheep
Themes this item is part of: Whitty & Brown Mint, Medal Makers, Sydney, New South Wales, George McArthur, Collector & Baker (1842-1903), Numismatics & Philately Collection, Working Life & Trades Collection, McArthur Bequest
Primary Classification: TRADE TOKENS
Secondary Classification: Australia - New South Wales
Tertiary Classification: working strikes
Series: Trade Tokens
DateEra: circa 1860 AD
Denomination: 1 Penny
Obverse Description: Ram standing facing left; around above, PEACE AND PLENTY; around below, . SYDNEY N.S.W.
Reverse Description: Justice blindfolded standing facing to left on beach; extends balanced scales in rirgh hand and holds inverted cornucopia from which fruits flow onto the ground, in left; sailing ship in background at left.
Edge Description: Plain
Inscriptions: Obverse: PEACE AND PLENTY SYDNEY N.S.W.
Reverse: NEW SOUTH WALES
Shape: Round
Material: Copper
Issued By: Whitty & Brown (Mint), Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Mint: Whitty & Brown (Mint), Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 1850-1868
Previous Collection: George McArthur
References: Andrews 630 = Heyde 202/3

The museum storage system is based on the die combination not on the deterioration stages of the dies. These are however noted in the description and are characterised as follows:
The stages of deterioration of the obverse die are recognised by the development of projections from the base of the ground into the exergue area, on this token there is one large projection from the right side. Stage 1 has no die flaw projections, stage 2 has a single projection and stage 3 has two projections and the edges of the die break up (just beginning this token) .

Stage 1 of the reverse is easiest to recognise by the fold of cloth which curves over the right shoulder and arm of Justice, on Stage 2 it is reformed as a sleeve squared off half way down the arm.
Bibliography:
  1. [Thesis] Lugton, Mary E. 1989. George McArthur of Maldon: his Life and his Book Collection.
  2. [Catalogue] Morrison, Ian. 2003. The Baker of Maldon.
  3. [Book], Dr Arthur Andrews, Australasian Tokens and Coins, Trustees of the Mitchell Library, Sydney, Sydney, 1921
  4. [Book], Dion Skinner - Renniks & Co Pty Ltd, Gilbert Heyde, Unofficial Coins of Colonial Australia and New Zealand, 1967

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