The Sun does not travel the same path throughout the year, but follows the path shown in the following diagram: Path of the Sun
As far as what is the difference between ‘real time’ and ‘clock time’, the following extract taken from this UK web-Sundials should explain the differences quite clearly.
Sundials tell "sun time". Clocks and watches tell "clock time". Neither kind of time is intrinsically "better" than the other - they are both useful and interesting for their separate purposes.
"Sun time" is anchored around the idea that when the sun reaches its highest point (when it crosses the meridian), it is noon and, next day, when the sun again crosses the meridian, it will be noon again. The time which has elapsed between successive noons is sometimes more and sometimes less than 24 hours of clock time. In the middle months of the year, the length of the day is quite close to 24 hours, but around 1 September the days are only some 23 hours, 59 minutes and 41 seconds long while around Christmas, the days are 24 hours and 31 seconds long.
"Clock time" is anchored around the idea that each day is exactly 24 hours long. This is not actually true, but it is obviously much more convenient to have a "mean sun" which takes exactly 24 hours for each day, since it means that mechanical clocks and watches, and, more recently, electronic ones can be made to measure these exactly equal time intervals.
For more detailed information, the above web site should be looked up.