Hi Josh, Imogen, Leila, Sam, Alycia and Obi,
The colour of the Moon is very subtle: it has soft shades of grey, black and white, and regions of browns, blues and yellows. We generally say there are four phases of the Moon. New, First Quarter, Full, and Last Quarter. See the Moon Phases page of our website.
It is actually possible to see the whole Moon during the crescent moon phase. Sometimes there is so much light reflected from the Earth (Earthshine), that it lights up the part of the Moon that is not lit up by the Sun: we see the bright crescent Moon as well as the pale remainder of the Moon. As the Moon phase moves towards the Full moon, the Moon is so bright you can no longer see the arthshine on the Moon. The Moon has to be in the right position for the Earth to reflect the Sun's light onto the Moon's night side; this only happens just after the New Moon. This is called the Da Vinci Glow. You can find out more about it on the NASA website.
The diameter (width) of the moon is 3475.6 km (0.272 x that of Earth). The moon is (on average) 384 400 km from the Earth. The Moon does not have a moon of its own. You can learn more about The Moon on our website.