Black Smoker

In some volcanically active regions, hot metal-rich springs bubble up from the ocean floor. As the hot water mixes with cold ocean water, metal sulfides crystallise out. These sulfides form chimneys known as ‘black smokers’. Many ore bodies began as metal-rich deposits like this.

The black smoker on display in Dynamic Earth is the largest ever collected. It was dredged from the seafloor, 2000 metres deep, in the Bismarck Sea off Papua New Guinea by a CSIRO expedition. Scientists have found many new species of fish, giant clams, crabs and worms living in the warm water around black smokers.


Explore more about this theme

MagmaTypes of LavaBasaltGraniteGemstones