Many geological processes, such as the crystallisation of magma and the compression of rocks during metamorphism, produce hot water that dissolves metals and carries them through pores and fractures in rocks.

As conditions change — for example, when the hot water cools — metal-bearing minerals crystallise and form ores.  Many metals combine with sulfur to form minerals known as sulfides. Most metals we use are obtained from sulfide ores. Although large crystals of metal sulfide minerals can form in cracks and cavities in rocks, most ores occur as fine-grained mineral mixtures. Broken Hill in New South Wales is home to a large deposit of metal sulfide ore.


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GoldMinerals from the Oxidised ZoneBroken Hill MineralsDundas MineralsBrowns Prospect Minerals